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Question 1. What are the different types of bones? Mention the part of the human body where each type is found. [5 MARKS]
: Types: 1 Mark each
Location: 1 Mark
Bones can be of different types based on their rigidity. Round and long bones: Found in limbs.
Ring-like bones with outgrowths:Found in the vertebral column.
Flat and strong bones:Found in the skull.
Girdles: Found in the shoulder region and pelvic region.
: Body structure : 2Marks
Movement : 1 Mark
Snakes are vertebrates with a vertebral column. Its body is supported by a skeleton made up of vertebrae which run continuously from head to tail. As they do not have any limbs, snakes do not have appendicular skeleton. They have a long back bone and many interconnected muscles that help them to slither. They have muscles connecting the backbone, ribs and skin.
Snakes move in grass, sand and water. Though the snakes do not have arms or legs, they can climb trees. Theymove in a loop-like, zig-zag manner. They cannot move in a straight line. They have difficulty in moving on very smooth surfaces.
Question 3. Describe in brief the movement of snakes, cockroaches, snails, earthworms, and fish. [5 MARKS]
: Animal movements: 1 Mark each
Snakes have a backbone and many interconnected muscles that help them to slither. They have muscles connecting the backbone, ribs and skin. Snakes move in a loop-like, zig-zag manner. They cannot move in a straight line, and have difficulty in moving on very smooth surfaces.
Cockroach is an arthropod with six jointed legs. These legs aid in walking, and two pairs of wings are used to fly. A cockroach moves its legs with the help of muscles near the limbs. It uses its breast muscles to move its wings and fly.
Snail moves with the help of a single muscular foot. The under surface of the foot is lubricated with mucus which helps the snail to move easily. The rhythmic contractions and relaxations of the foot brings about a moving action in the body. The entire body except the foot lies inside the shell.
Earthworms move with help of tiny, stiff hair-like projections called bristles. Every segment of the earthworm's body possesses "setae" which help in their movement. They move forward by repeated contractions and relaxations of their muscles in the skin. A slimy substance secreted by the earthworm helps in its movement.
Fish possess a streamlined body which helps them to swim in water. They swim with the help of their fins and their tails. The tail flaps from side to side to propel in the right direction. Some fish, however, move by bending their bodies from one side to another in quick succession. This produces a thrust that helps it move forward.
: Bone: 1 Mark
Cartilage: 1 Mark
Bone: Bone is a hard and non- flexible structure. It forms the skeleton
Cartilage : Cartilage is soft and flexible structure. It provides flexibility to the joints. It is found in the nose, ears and the rings of the trachea to give flexibility.
: Functions: 1 Mark each.
- It protects the spinal cord.
- It serves as an attachment for the ribs.
- It provides support and place of attachment for the pectoral and pelvic girdle.
- It provides movement for the human skeleton.
- It helps in walking and standing erect and maintaining correct posture.
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