Question: Write a short note on soil erosion. [3 MARKS]Options:
: Definition: 1 Mark
Explanation: 2 Marks
The removal of land surface by water, wind or ice is known as erosion.
Plant roots firmly bind the soil. In the absence of plants, the soil becomes loose. So it can be moved by wind and flowing water. Erosion of soil is more severe in areas of little or no surface vegetation, such as a desert. So, cutting of trees and deforestation should be prevented and effort should be made to increase the number of trees.
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Question 2. Gardeners gently dig up the soil around the roots of garden herbs (plants) frequently. Give reasons. [3 MARKS]
: Each point: 1 Mark
(a) For enabling easy root growth
(b) For easier percolation of water
(c) For aerating the soil/enabling air to get into deeper layers of soil
(d) For removing the weeds
Question 3. "The components of the soil determine the types of vegetation and crops that grow in a particular area." Do you agree? Justify using examples. [5 MARKS]
: Justification: 1 Mark each The statement is true, since each crop requires different things out of the soil and the weather around it. For example,
1. Cereals likewheat and gramare grow only inclayey and loamy soils,because these plants need the soil to have better water retention capacity.
2. Soils rich inclayand organic matter with good water retention capacity are ideal forpaddy.
3. Loamy soils, which drain water easily, are suitable forlentils and other pulses, which don't need the water to stay in the soil for a longer time.
4. Forcotton,loamy or sandy soilsare more suitable, because of their water draining and air logging capacity.
5. Wheat requires soils that are rich in humus and fertile. So clayey soils are very good for wheat.
Question 4. In towns and cities, generally, the borewells have to be dug very deep to get water as compared to borewells dug in villages. Give suitable reasons. [2 MARKS]
: Each reason: 1 Mark
(a) This is so because of excessive use of water which depletes the ground water.
(b) Towns and cities have asphalted roads and vast areas of soil are concreted. As a result, rain water cannot percolate to recharge ground water and the ground water level decreases further. Villages have larger areas of open soil surface and fewer asphalted roads and concrete surfaces.
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