Question: Short lived immunity obtained by foetuses/infants from mother through placenta and milk is

A.Passive immunity
B.Active immunity
C.Cellular immunity
D.Innate nonspecific immunity
Answer: Option A
: A

In case of passive immunity, antibodies generated in one person are transferred to another individual, making the recipient immune to a disease he has never encountered. Transfer of antibodies that occurs from mother to foetus via the placenta is an example of natural passive immunity.Mother’s milk contains colostrum, a yellowish secretion, that contains antibodies against pathogens that the mother has been exposed to. Since these are transferred to the baby, this kind of immunity is termed as ‘passive immunity’.

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More Questions on This Topic :

Question 1. Which of the following is an anti-cancer drug?
  1.    Aspirin
  2.    Streptomycin    
  3.    Vincristine
  4.    Reserpine
Answer: Option C
: C

Vincristine is an anti-cancer drug obtained from the plant Catharanthus roseus. It is used for treating a number of different types of cancers like acute myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, etc.
Question 2. A patient is found to have a form of diabetes in which his immune system is destroying his pancreatic islet cells. This is a type of
  1.    Autoimmune disorder
  2.    Diabetes mellitus type II
  3.    AIDS
  4.    Multiple myeloma
Answer: Option A
: A

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic medical condition that occurs when the pancreas, an organ in the abdomen, produces very little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes usually develops when the immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells (called the beta cells) in the pancreas. This is called an autoimmune response. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is caused mainly by genetic factors and due to certain kinds of lifestyle. AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells.
Question 3. Select the right option with respect to the given image of HIV.

  1.    I - HIV envelope, II - RNA, III - Capsid, IV - Surface protein, V - Viral enzymes
  2.    I - Capsid, II - RNA, III - HIV envelope, IV -  Viral enzymes, V - Surface protein
  3.    I - Surface protein, II - RNA, III - Capsid, IV - HIV envelope, V - Viral enzymes
  4.    I - HIV envelope, II - Viral enzymes, III - Capsid, IV - Surface protein, V - RNA
Answer: Option A
: A

Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a member of a group of viruses called retrovirus, which have a sphericalouter surface called envelope. On the surface of the envelope contains spike-like glycoproteins called surface proteins. Inside the envelope is a bullet-shaped core called capsid. Capsid along with theHIV genetic material (RNA) also houses different enzymes that carry steps outin the HIV life cycle.
Question 4. Match the causative organisms with their diseases:

Column IColumn IIA. Haemophilus influenzae1. Malignant malariaB. Entamoeba histolytica2. ElephantiasisC. Plasmodium falciparum3. PneumoniaD. Wuchereria bancrofti4. TyphoidE. Salmonella typhi5. Amoebiasis           
  1.    A - 1, B - 5, C - 3, D - 2, E - 4 
  2.    A - 3, B - 5, C - 1, D - 2, E - 4 
  3.    A - 1, B - 3, C - 2, D - 5, E - 4 
  4.    A - 1, B - 3, C - 5, D - 2, E - 4 
Answer: Option B
: B

Bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophlius influenzae are responsible for the disease pneumonia. Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite in the large intestine of humans which causes amoebiasis. Plasmodium falciparum causes malignant malaria. Wuchereria bancrofti causes filariasis or elephantiasis. Salmonella typhi is a pathogenic bacterium, which causes typhoid fever in humans.
Question 5. State whether true or false:

Major Histocompatibility Complex or MHC is present on every individual cell of the body.
  1.    True
  2.    False
  3.    I - Surface protein, II - RNA, III - Capsid, IV - HIV envelope, V - Viral enzymes
  4.    I - HIV envelope, II - Viral enzymes, III - Capsid, IV - Surface protein, V - RNA
Answer: Option A
: A

MHC is a cluster of proteins that are displayed by all the cells in the body. Cellular proteins are continuously degraded and presented along with MHC on the cell surface for self and non-self recognition.

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