Lakshya Education MCQs

Question: Identify the glands in the image.

Options:
A.I – Parathyroid gland, II – Thyroid gland
B.I – Thyroid gland, II – Parathyroid gland
C.I – Pituitary gland, II – Parathyroid gland
D.I – Thyroid gland, II – Pituitary gland
Answer: Option B
: B

I. – Thyroid gland is found on the ventral side in the neck region of the body, at the base of larynx. It has two lateral lobes one on either side of trachea.The thyroid gland secretestwo hormones thyroxine and calcitonin. II. – Parathyroid glands are present on the back side of the thyroid gland, one pair each in two lobes of the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands secrete a peptide hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH).

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Question 1. Testosterone is produced by
  1.    Sertoli cells
  2.    Graafian follicles
  3.    Leydig cells
  4.    Placenta
Answer: Option C
: C

Testosterone is produced by the leydig cells of testis.
The male gonad is testis which has a dual role both as a primary sex organ and also as an endocrine gland. Testis is composed of seminiferous tubules and stromal or interstitial tissue. The Leydig cells or interstitial cells, which are present in the intertubular spaces produce a group of hormones called androgens mainly testosterone.
Question 2. Blood samples taken from a person fasting for 24 hrs will have which of the following?
  1.    High levels of insulin and glucagon
  2.    Low levels of insulin and glucagon
  3.    High levels of glucagon, low levels of insulin
  4.    Low levels of glucagon, high levels of insulin
Answer: Option C
: C

Blood sample taken from a person who is fasting will have high levels of glucagon and low levels of insulin. After a meal, an increased secretion of insulin by the β cells of the pancreatic islets promotes removal of excess glucose from blood and the deposition of glycogen and fat. When blood glucose levels decrease, as they do between meals, during periods of fasting, and during exercise, the liver secretes glucose into the blood. During fasting or exercising, an increased glucagon secretion by the α cells of the pancreatic islets and a decreased insulin secretion promote the breakdown (through hydrolysis reactions) of glycogen and fat.
Question 3. The 24 hour (diurnal) rhythm of our body such as the sleep wake cycle is regulated by the hormone
  1.    Calcitonin
  2.    Prolactin
  3.    Adrenaline
  4.    Melatonin
Answer: Option D
: D

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland. Melatonin secretion by the pineal is linked to the dark light cycle of the organism’s environment, being greatest at night and lowest by day. The hormone is involved in regulating certain diurnal and seasonal changes in the body. Such as the reproductive cycle in seasonally breeding animals. It is used as a drug to treat sleep disorders and symptoms of jet lag.
Question 4. Match the following pituitary hormones with their site of action.

Column IColumn IIi. GnRHa. Thyroid glandii. ACTHb. Mammary glandsiii.TSHc.Adrenal~glandiv. Prolactind. Gonads
  1.    i).➡ a., ii).➡ d., iii).➡ c., iv). ➡ b,
  2.    i).➡ b., ii).➡c., iii).➡ a., iv). ➡ d.,
  3.    i).➡ d., ii).➡ c., iii).➡ a., iv). ➡ b.,
  4.    i).➡d., ii).➡ c., iii).➡ b., iv). ➡ a.
Answer: Option C
: C

Each endocrine gland has its specific site of action. (i) GnRH or gonadotropin releasing hormone acts on gonads. ii)ACTH or adrenocorticotrophic hormone acts on theadrenal gland (adrenal cortex) and stimulates the secretion of steroid hormones called glucocorticoids. iii)TSH or thyroid stimulating hormone acts on the thyroid gland and stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. iv)Prolactin regulates the growth of mammary glands and the secretion of milk in them.
Question 5. Which of the following hormones uses calcium pathway for its action?
  1.    ACTH
  2.    FSH
  3.    LH
  4.    CCK
Answer: Option D
: D

CCK uses the calcium pathway for action. Hormones which can not enter cells (water-soluble) directly induce production of secondary messengers inside the cell for producing the desired effect. Two such pathways exist,one is the cAMP pathway and other is calcium or phosphatidylinositol pathway. Hormones ACTH, FSH, LH, PTH, glucagon, and calcitonin, all utilise the cAMP pathway, while CCK, TRH, GnRH, and gastrin utilise the phosphatidylinositol/calcium pathway.
Question 6. Match the following deficiency disorders with the corresponding Adrenal hormones.

Column IColumn IIi. Addison’s Diseasea. Androgens in Femalesii. Cushing’s Syndromeb. Estrogens in Malesiii. Aldosteronismc. Cortisolsiv. Gynaecomastiad. ACTHv. Adrenal Virilisme. Aldosterone
  1.    I → d, II → c, III → e, IV → b, V → a.
  2.    I → e, II → a, III → d, IV → c, V → b.
  3.    I → a, II → b, III → c, IV → d, V → e.
  4.    I → c, II → d, III → b, IV → e, V → a.
Answer: Option A
: A

From the reference : I. Addison’s Disease d. ACTH - Addison's disease occurs when the cortex is damaged and doesn't produce its hormones in adequate quantities. The pituitary gland makes a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce its hormones. Inadequate production of ACTH can lead to insufficient production of hormones normally produced by the adrenal glands. II. Cushing’s Syndromec. Cortisols -This disease can be attributed to an excess of cortisol. Often tumours of the adrenal cortex result in overproduction of cortisol. III. Aldosteronism e. Aldosterone - Aldosteronism is a disease caused by high levels of aldosterone, often due to an adrenocortical tumour. IV. Gynaecomastia b. Estrogen in Males - Men start producing excessive quantities of estrogen, they experience breast enlargement, or gynaecomastia. V. Adrenal Virilism a. Androgen in Females - Adrenal virilism is seen in women who produce excess amounts of androgens, from the adrenal cortex. This leads to the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, like a beard, moustache and deepening of voice.

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