Components Of Food
Explain any 5 constituents of our food in detail. [5 MARKS]
: 1 Mark each
The components present in our food are:- carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water and fiber.
1.Carbohydratesare made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen molecules. Sugars, starch and cellulose are examples of carbohydrates.Starch and cellulose are broken down in the body into simple sugars like glucose.They provide instant energy.Carbohydrates are present in rice, wheat, jowar, maize and other grains.They are also present in tubers and fruits.
2. Proteinsare formed by carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Nitrogen is the most essential element in proteins, but some proteins contain sulphur and phosphorus also. They form simple molecules called amino acids on digestion. Proteins act as building blocks and serve as materials helping in growth and repair of the body cells and tissues. They also help in the formation of hair and nails. Foods rich in proteins include lean meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, nuts, beans and peas.
3. Fatsare also made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They have very little oxygen content and produce more energy than carbohydrates do. Fat below the skin protects the body against rapid loss of heat. It serves as a solvent for fat-soluble vitamins. It is an important form of energy storage for future use. Common food rich in fats includes milk, cheese, butter, cream, ghee, vegetable oils, meat and fish liver oils.
4. Vitaminsare the chemical substances that help in maintaining a healthy body. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat soluble and can be stored in the body. Vitamin B complexes and Vitamin C are water soluble forms. They cannot be stored for a long period of time in the body.
5. Mineralsare needed in the diet in small quantities. These are obtained from table salt, green vegetables, and fruits.
6. Wateris an important component which helps the body absorb the nutrients from the food. It also helps the body to get rid of toxic wastes through urine and sweat. It provides the medium for transportation of substances in the body.
7.Dietary fibresare necessary for the smooth movement of food in the alimentary canal. They provide bulk roughage to remove the undigested waste during defecation.