Lakshya Education MCQs

Question: Destruction of thymus in children may lead to
A.Loss of skin pigmentation
B.Reduction of hemoglobin content in blood
C.Reduction in stem cell production
D.Loss of cell mediated immunity
Answer: Option D
: D

The thymus gland is a lobular structure located on the dorsal side of the heart and the aorta. The thymus plays a major role in the development of the immune system. This gland secretes the peptide hormones called thymosins. Thymosins play a major role in the differentiation of T lymphocytes, which provide cell-mediated immunity. In addition, thymosins also promote production of antibodies to provide humoral immunity. Children with defective thymus may suffer from loss of cell mediated immunity.

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Question 1. _____ is the secondary messenger utilized by ACTH, FSH, LH and calcitonin hormones.
  1.    cAMP
  2.    cGMP
  3.    Calcium
  4.    A, B and C
Answer: Option D
: D

Secondary messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used to relay signals within a cell. They are synthesized or released by specific enzymatic reactions, usually as a result of an external signal that is received by a transmembrane receptor. cAMP, cGMP and Ca2+ act as secondary messengers and are located in the cytoplasm. The hormones ACTH, FSH, LH, PTH, glucagon, and calcitonin - all utilize the cAMP pathway
Question 2. Master endocrine gland is
  1.    Thyroid
  2.    Pituitary
  3.    Parathyroid
  4.    Pineal
Answer: Option B
: B

The pituitary is regarded as the “master” gland”. The hormones released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland stimulate the secretion of hormones by other target endocrine glands, e.g., thyroid stimulating hormone of the pituitary stimulates the thyroid gland to release the thyroid hormones. The parathyroid glands release parathormone and the pineal gland secretes melatonin. The hypothalamus is sometimes called the "master switchboard" as it secretes certain hormones that in turn, stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones.
Question 3. The basic significance of a hormone is _____.
  1.    Generation of Stimulus
  2.    Impulse conduction
  3.    Coordination
  4.    Termination of neural activity
Answer: Option C
: C

Hormones are non-nutrient chemicals that act as intercellular messengers and are produced in trace amounts. Hormones have more or less a specific role in the coordination of: 1. Metabolic activities 2. Homeostasis 3. Morphogenic activities 4. Mental activities 5. Growth, maturation, and regeneration 6. Secondary sexual characters and reproductive activities 7. Control of other endocrine glands
Question 4. Cholecystokinin and secretin are secreted by _____.
  1.    Heart
  2.    Intestine
  3.    Kidney
  4.    Skin
Answer: Option B
: B

Cholecystokinin and secretin are secreted by the intestine. CCK stimulates pancreas to release enzymes in pancreatic juice and stimulates the gallbladder to release bile.Secretin causes the release of viscous mucus from Brunner’s glands into intestinal juice. It regulates the environment within the duodenum (esp. its pH) via secretions from the stomach and pancreas and helps regulate homeostatic control of water throughout the body.

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